The title of this triad series in taken from the slogan of the military regime of General Abboud who ruled Sudan after a coup on November 17th, 1958
till October 21st, 1964 when removed following a popular uprising on October 21st, 1964 in which almost all people of Khartoum took to the streets in anger as a violent response to the killing of a student of Khartoum University by police guns who forcibly dispersed a peaceful rally insider the university premises on the evening of October 21, 1964. The rally was an open debate about the problem of South Sudan.
In this series we will fairly judge the deeds in three eras that will cover 6 regimes:
Article One: 1954 – 1964 which covers the first democratic rule from 1954 – 1958 and the first military rule from 1958 – 1964
I : 1954 – 1958
In 1954 the condominium rule of Sudan (UK and Egypt) which colonized Sudan after the defect of Mahdia rule (1885 – 1898) from 1898 to 1956 agreed to grant Sudan independence in 1956. As a prelude to full independence the two countries (UK and Egypt) decided to run general elections to form a national parliament to elect a national government under the auspices of the condominium countries. Elections committee was selected headed by the Indian Judge Suku Mar Sin. Elections were on 92 seats, five of which earmarked for graduates. National Unionist Party headed by late Ismail Al-Azhari (pro-Egypt) won 46 seats, Umma Party (Mahdi – pro-England) was 23 seats, Southerners 13, Communist party 1 and 13 independents.
Azhari was elected prime minister. He formed COALITION GOVERNMENT. Shortly the elected government was weakened by allegations from Umma Party that the NUP has received support and illegal money from Egypt and that the total votes of the 46 NUP seats are far less than those of Umma party 23 seats. Due to change of some MPs especially southerners to their allegiance Abdallah Khalil of Umma party managed to cast a no-confidence vote on Azhari government. Abdallah Khalil formed in 1957 a weak government which did not have the comfortable majority in the parliament. On the session of November 17, 1958 the parliament was set to fail the Umma party government. Ex-General Abdallah Khalil as prime minister and minister of defence ordered the Chief of the Army Lt. Gen. Ibrahim Abboud to take over on the grounds that the sovereignty of Sudan is under threat from Egypt. Early morning 17 November 1958 General Abboud took over power, dissolved the parliament and government. He formed a supreme council for the armed forces as the top ruling constitutional body. He formed a technocrat government headed by him. So our judgment to the first democratic rule is zero out of ten. Now let us list precisely the deeds of the first military regime and judge to set a fair aggregate out of 10 points:
1. The regime of Abboud (1958 – 1964) perfectly maintained a powerful civil service as inherited from the British rule. The Permanent Under-Secretary (PUS) was the sole top of the civil service in each ministry. In all cases he ascends to this position from the bottom of the administrative ladder in lowest grade. PUS grade is called (1). He is responsible of all executive activities of the ministry – administratively and financially. Minister set policies and never sign or authorize any financial transactions.
2. High transparency in all government expenditure on big national projects or local tenders. Fair completion prevailed. During this rule not a single corruption case was reported.
3. Basic services were intact. Free education, free medical care in clean government hospitals.
4. Commodities and infrastructure service in abundance and at prices affordable to the majority of citizens.
5. Agriculture by scheme e.g. Gezira cotton scheme rehabilitated and well-maintained and was the major source of government revenues of cotton export. Gezira cotton area was almost doubled by the extension of Managil.
6. Rehabilitation of the oldest airways in Africa (Sudan Airways established in 1946 for domestic flights only) when the regime bought big airliners to fly to London, Rome and Frankfurt in 1959.